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Reactions regarding most other gaseous compounds displayed comparable regularity matchmaking

2022年9月13日

Reactions regarding most other gaseous compounds displayed comparable regularity matchmaking
Gay-Lussac’s studies revealed, such, one dos amounts from carbon monoxide gas combine with 1 number of outdoors to create dos quantities out of carbon dioxide

Dalton’s atomic theory explained the law of multiple proportions. For example, it is known that mercury forms two oxides: a black substance containing step three.8 percent oxygen and 96.2 percent mercury, and a red compound containing 7.cuatro percent oxygen and 92.6 percent mercury. Dalton’s theory states that the atoms of mercury (Hg) and oxygen (O) must combine in whole numbers, so the two compounds might be HgO and Hg2O, for example. Furthermore, Dalton’s theory states that each element has a characteristic mass – perhaps 9 mass units for Hg and 4 mass units for O (the

Another little bit of the fresh puzzle from cousin atomic public try provided with Jo; 1850), just who composed a newspaper towards the frequency matchmaking inside responses from smoke

The brand new thought algorithms is displayed in line 1. The new percent constitution of each and every material, computed regarding usual means, try presented in-line step 3, showing these particular one or two compounds, indeed, have various other arrangements, as required from the law away from multiple proportions. Range cuatro contains the ratio of mass of mercury in order to the newest size away from clean air, for every single material. Those individuals rates is going to be conveyed given that ratio out-of easy entire wide variety (dos.25:4.5 = 1:2), satisfying an ailment necessary for the law off numerous size. Notice that Dalton’s ideas do not rely upon the prices assigned on points and/or formulas on ingredients with it. Indeed, the question as to and therefore substance, red-colored otherwise black, is on the and this formula can’t be replied regarding the research available. Therefore, even though Dalton heated affairs try struggling to expose an atomic size level, his standard idea did render an insight into the 3 size-associated laws: conservation, ongoing structure, and multiple ratio. Other information was required to expose the new cousin masses regarding atoms.

Gay-Lussac made no attempt to interpret his results, and Dalton questioned the paper’s validity, not realizing that the law of combining volumes was really a verification of his atomic theory! Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes suggested, clearly, that equal volumes of different gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of reactive particles (molecules). Thus, if 1 volume of ammonia gas (NH3) combines exactly with 1 volume of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl) to form a salt (NH4Cl), it is natural to conclude that each volume of gas must contain the same number of particles.

At least one of the implications of Gay-Lussac’s law was troubling to the chemistry community. For example, in the formation of water, 2 volumes of hydrogen gas combined with 1 volume of oxygen gas to produce 2 volumes of steam (water in the gaseous state). These observations produced, at the time, an apparent puzzle. If each volume of gas contains n particles (molecules), 2 volumes of steam must contain 2 n particles. Now, if each water particle contains at least 1 oxygen atom, how is it possible to get two oxygen atoms (corresponding to 2 n water molecules) from n oxygen particles? The obvious answer to this question is that each oxygen particle contains two oxygen atoms. This is equivalent to stating that the oxygen molecule consists of two oxygen atoms, or that oxygen gas is diatomic (O2). Amedeo Avogadro (1776 – 1856) an Italian physicist, resolved the problem by adopting the hypothesis that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions contain equal numbers of particles (molecules). His terminology for what we now call an atom of, for instance, oxygen, was half molecule. Similar reasoning involving the combining of volumes of hydrogen and oxygen to form steam leads to the conclusion that hydrogen gas is also diatomic (H2). Despite the soundness of Avogadro’s reasoning, his hypothesis was generally rejected or ignored. Dalton never appreciated its significance because he refused to accept the experimental validity of Gay-Lussac’s law.

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